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Содержание зачета (II семестр) - Рабочая программа и контрольные задания по английскому языку для студентов специальности...


^ Содержание зачета (II семестр).

  1. Обзорный письменный тест по изученному грамматическому материалу.

  2. Монологическое высказывание по заданным ситуациям (10-12 реплик).

  1. Тест на понимание содержания прочитанного текста объемом 800 печ. зн. (время исполнения 45 мин.).



^ Содержание зачета (III семестр).
( для студентов со средним специальным образованием)

  1. Обзорный письменный тест по изученному грамматическому материалу.

  2. Обзорный письменный тест по изученному лексическому материалу.
^ Содержание зачета (III семестр).
( для студентов с высшим образованием)

1. Обзорный письменный тест по изученному грамматическому и лексическому материалу.

2. Развернутое сообщение на заданную тему в объеме 20-25 предложений (возможно сочетание монологического высказывания со свободной беседой с партнером в рамках заданной темы).

3. Письменный перевод со словарем с английского языка на русский фрагмента статьи по изучаемой специальности объемом 1500 печ. зн. (время исполнения 60 минут).


Содержание экзамена (III семестр).

  1. Письменный перевод со словарем с английского языка на русский текста по специальности объемом 1200 печ. зн. (время исполнения – 60 мин.).

  2. Развернутое сообщение на заданную тему в объеме 20-25 предложений. Возможно сочетание монологического высказывания экзаменуемого со свободной беседой с преподавателем в рамках заданной темы.

  3. Аннотирование статьи профессионального характера объемом 2000 печ. зн.

Содержание контрольной работы ( III семестр).

Контрольное задание представляют собой грамматические упражнения, тексты для чтения и перевода, предтекстовые и послетекстовые задания построены на аутентичном материале, заимствованном из оригинальных публикаций.

Выполняя данные задания студент должен:

- уметь узнавать грамматические формы в предложениях и текстах;

- уметь самостоятельно раскрывать значения незнакомых слов по их элементам;

- уметь выделять отдельные факты, основную мысль текста, соотносить отдельные факты между собой.


Содержание экзамена (IV семестр).

1.Письменный перевод со словарем с английского языка на русский текста по специальности объемом 1500 печ. зн. (время исполнения – 60 мин.).

2.Развернутое сообщение на заданную тему в объеме 20-25 предложений. Возможно сочетание монологического высказывания экзаменуемого со свободной беседой с преподавателем в рамках заданной темы.

3.Защита реферата, подготовленного на основе прочитанной дополнительной литературы профессиональной направленности в объеме 20000 печ. зн.


Темы для монологических высказываний и беседы на экзамене:

1. Семья (My Family)

2. Рабочий день и досуг (Daily life. Leisure and entertainments)

3. Учеба в университете (Studies at the University)

4. Мой факультет (My Faculty)

5. Англия. Географическое положение, политическая система, образование.(The United Kingdom. The Geography. The Constitution. The Education.)

6. Англия. Америка. Россия. Экономическое развитие. (British Economy, US Economy, Russia’s Economic Development)

7. Как организовать свой бизнес. Типы собственности. (How to organize your own business. Types of business)

8. Менеджеры и руководители. (Managers, executives and directors)

9. Выбор работы. Трудоустройство.( Recruitment and selection)

10.Структура компании. (Company Organization)

11.Развитие производства. ( Product development)

12. Маркетинг. ( Marketing)

13. Деньги. (Money)

14.Финансы и экономика. (Finance and the economy)

15.Менеджмент как стиль руководства. ( Management. Personal skills)

16.Ведение бизнеса в разных странах. (Business across cultures)

17.Основные навыки ведения бизнеса. ( Business Skills: business letters, telephoning, meetings, presentations, negotiations).



  1. ^ ОСНОВНАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА.

  1. Simon Greenall. Reward Pre-intermediate. Simon Greenall, 1997

  2. Stuart Redman. English Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge university Press,1997

  3. О.Э. Сухарева, Л.А. Карнаухова. The Language of Business. Тюмень: ТГУ,1998

  4. И.П. Агабакен. Английский язык для менеджеров. Ростов-на-Дону: Феникс, 2003

  5. С.А. Шевелева. English on Economics. М: Юнити, 2004

  6. Bill Mascull. Business Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge University Press, 2002

  7. Tricia Aspinall & George Bethell. Test Your Business Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge University Press, 2003

  8. Дженни Дули, Вирджиния Эванс. Практическое пособие по грамматике английского языка. М: ЦентрКом, 2000

  9. Nick Brieger & Simon Sweeney. Early Language Business English. Grammar & Functions. London. Prentice Hall, 2002




  1. ^ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА.

  1. К.Н. Качалова, Е.Е. Израилевич. Практическая грамматика английского языка. М: Дело Лтд, 1994

  2. Peter Strutt. Market Leader. Business Grammar and Usage. Longman.2001

  3. Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge,2001

  4. Mark Farrell. The World of English. Longman, 2001

  5. Bill Mascull. Key words in Business. Collins Cobuild, 1997

  6. Deirdre Howard-Williams, Cynthia Herd. Business Words. Heinemann, 1992

  7. Colin Benn, Paul Dummel. A First Course in Business English. Heinemann, 1992

  8. John Morrison Milne. Business Language Practice. London, 1994

  9. John Flower. Build Your Business Vocabulary. England, LtP, 1990

  10. Steve Finders. Professional English. Business: General. Penguin English, 2002

  11. Donnelly, Gibson, Ivancevich. Fundamentals of Management. Boston, 1992

  12. Steven J. Skinner, John M. Ivancevich. Business for the 21st century. Richard D. Irwin. Inc.,1992


^ 6. АУДИО- И ВИДЕОМАТЕРИАЛЫ.

1. Mark Ellis, Nina O’Driscoll. Meetings and discussions. Longman, 1900

2. Simon Greenall. Reward Pre-intermediate. Simon Greenall, 1997 (Video)

3. О.Э. Сухарева, Л.А. Карнаухова. The Language of Business. Тюмень: ТГУ,1998

4. Christine Johnson, Jack Lonergan. Starting Business English. The British B. Corp., 1993 (Video)

5. Nina O’Driscoll. Business Challenges. Longman Business English, 1998

6. John Tully. International Challenges. Longman, 1998 (Video)

7. Gillian Porter Ladousse. Going Places. Macmillan, 1996

8. Pamela Pickford, Richard Crowe. Market Leader. Business Leader Briefings. Longman, 2003 (Video)

9. Pamela Pickford, Richard Crowe. Market Leader. Alliance. Longman, 2003 (Video)

10. David Cotton, David Falvey, Simon Kent. Market Leader.Pre-Intermediate,2003


^ КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ


Инструкции к выполнению контрольных заданий.


  1. Количество контрольных заданий, выполняемых студентами-заочниками, устанавливается учебным планом института.

  2. Каждое из 3 контрольных заданий в данном пособии предлагается в двух вариантах. Варианты распределяет преподаватель во время установочной сессии.

  3. Выполнить письменные контрольные работы следует в отдельной тетради аккуратно, четким почерком. В тетради в клетку необходимо писать через строку. При выполнении контрольной работы оставляйте в тетради широкие поля для замечаний, объяснений и методических указаний преподавателя.

  4. Упражнения контрольной работы, связанные с переводом с английского языка на русский следует располагать в тетради по следующему образцу:




Левая страница

Правая страница

Поля

Английский текст

Русский текст

Поля




  1. На титульном листе напишите свою фамилию, имя, отчество, номер группы, номер контрольной работы и фамилию, имя, отчество своего преподавателя.

  2. Контрольные работы должны быть выполнены в той последовательности, в какой они даны в настоящем пособии.

  3. Выполненные контрольные работы направляйте для проверки и рецензирования в институт в установленные сроки.


^ КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА.

( 3-й семестр)

Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка :

1. Видовременные формы глагола:

а) активный залог - формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future); формы Continuous (Present, Past, Future); формы Perfect (Present, Past, Future); формы Perfect Continuous (Present, Past, Future);

б) пассивный залог - формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future); формы Continuous (Present, Past); формы Perfect (Present, Past, Future).

2. Модальные глаголы: а) модальные глаголы, выражающие возможность: can (could), may и их эквиваленты to be able (to), to be allowed (to); б) модальные глаголы, выражающие долженствование: must, его эквиваленты to have (to) и to be (to); should.

3. Функции глаголов to be, to have, to do.

4. Интернациональные слова.

Используйте следующие образцы выполнения упражнений.

Образец выполнения 1 (к упр. I)

The stockholders have elected the Board of Directors.

have elected - Present Perfect Active от глагола to elect.

Акционеры избрали совет директоров.

Образец выполнения 2 (к упр. II)

The company officers have been chosen by the board of directors.

have been chosen - Present Perfect Passive от глагола to choose.


Служащие компании были выбраны советом директоров.




Образец выполнения 3 (к упр. VI)

1. I don't know where I can borrow the rest of my start-up money. –

Функция - вспомогательный глагол (отрица­тельная форма).


^ Я не знал, где а смогу занять недостающую сумму денег для открытия своего дела.

2. 1 really do believe that successful businessmen don't trust to luck for their opportunities or blame fate for their fai­lures.-

. Функция - do - усиление смысла основного глагола

- don't trust - вспомогательный глагол (отрицательная форма).

^ Я действительно считаю, что преуспевающие бизнесмены не полагаются на счастливый случай и не винят судьбу в своих несчастьях




ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. We advertised in the special section of the newspaper but we haven't received yet.

2. Our accountant was calculating assets and liabilities and net worth two days before yesterday.

3. They have been supervising daily management since they became company officers.

4. This commercial bank hadn't stopped to exist yet when the war started.

5. Usually such corporation does not issue stock and is nonprofit.


II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

1. A person who owns a stock certificate is called a stock-holder.

2. The orders were received from the sales-manager.

3. Тhe immediate subordinate is being fired by the foreman.

4. My money has been invested in real estate.
5. The value of a share is determined by the net assets divided by the total number of shares outstanding.


III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол и его эквивалент. Переведите предложение.

1. Аny business may have the form of the partnership, for example, in such professional fields as medicine, law, accounting, insurance and stockbrokerage.

2. One of the advantages of general partnership is that you can invest less capital than your partner - even no money at all.

3. What legal procedure do you have to follow if you want to form a corporation?

4. Personal characteristics or personality traits must be evaluated through interviews.

5. They must research supply and demand before they start to produce the new item.


IV. Определите функцию глагола "to be" в предложениях, пере­ведите их на русский язык.

1. We are quite satisfied with the results of the transacti­on.

2. During the talks, which are to commence in April, princip­le clauses are to be included in this contract.

3. These businessmen are the organizers of this corporation.

They issue and sell stock in exchange for investment capital.

4. The inflow of capital is formed by the sale of goods and services.

5. The price of sugar is going up 10 per cent during the next year.

6. There is a good reason for changing the price.


V. Определите функции глагола "to have", переведите предложе­ния на русский язык.

1. The atmosphere of our talks has been friendly and busi­nesslike.

2. I don't have a clear idea of the services which banks of­fer to business.

3. If the business fails, I have to declare personal bank­ruptcy.

4. It seems to me we have settled all the problems and we can sign the contract now.

5. We are having business contacts and cooperation with this firm now.

6. Of course, you can have a copy of this document.


VI. Определите функции глагола "to do", переведите предложе­ния на русский язык.

1. I prefer to do my books myself.

2. I believe you don't run a risk in your business.

3. I do wish to be your partner in business.

4. What position in your company do you want to hold?

5. I do want to hold a position of a general manager.

6. He seldom receives foreign businessmen at his office, but when he does, they discuss prices, terms of payment and delivery.


VII. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Пояснение к тексту

to distribute - распределять, распространять, продавать.

principal - принципал, доверитель

showroom - демонстрационный зал

diligence - усердие, старание

to treat - рассматривать (вопрос)

remuneration - вознаграждение, оплата

merchant firm - фирма - купец

to dispose - распорядиться чем-либо, продавать

intermediary - посредник

consignment - консигнация (вид договора)]

remittance - денежный перевод

to grant - давать, предоставлять

AGENTS

According to world-wide statistics over half of the world's foreign trade is handled by agents. Selling firms turn to commercial agents for their services mostly when they try to develop a new market for their goods in a foreign territory. The agents are instrumental in distributing the principals' product as they know the commercial conditions and changes in the market of their country. They have their own storehouses, showrooms, repair workshops, service station, etc.

However, sales through agents have certain disadvantages as the Sellers cannot be indirect contact with the market. They also completely depend on the agents' diligence, efficiency and experience in handling business.

The main provisions included in an agency agreement should clearly define the territory in which the agents are entitled to act, the time of the validity of the agreement, the quantities the agents undertake to sell annually and the agents' remuneration.

There are basically two types of agency agreements. They are agreements for: 1) merchant firms and 2) sales agents.

An agreement for merchant firms stipulates that they become the owners of the goods and can dispose of them at their option. Payment to the Selling (exporting) firms by the merchant firms may be effected by a Letter of Credit, for collection or by other methods.

The agreement states the amount of remuneration to which the merchant firm will be entitled. It may be a certain percentage of the value of the transaction or a sum equivalent to the difference in the prices at which they have purchased the goods from the Sellers and sold to the customers.

A sales agent comes as an intermediary between the principal who sells and the customer who buys. Sales agents may conclude agency agreements on a consignment basis which means that the goods sent on consignment remain the absolute property of the principals until delivered to the Buyers. In many cases the consignment transactions are concluded on a sale or return basis in which case the agents are to dispose of the goods within an agreed and limited period of time. If the agents fail to sell the goods within the stipulated time they are to return the unsold goods to the principals. The liability of either party for return of the goods should be stipulated in the agreement.

Under this type of an agency agreement payment to the principals can be effected by the agents by remittance either per each machine or unit sold or for the whole lot sold.

The agents may be granted the exclusive right to represent the principals within the contractual territory. Under the exclusive agency agreement the principals will have the right to sell their goods only through these particular agents inside the territory agreed upon by the two parties.

Agents are interested in obtaining the exclusive rights as it is profitable for them to be the sole representatives of the principals and it enables them not to compete with other agents of the same principal.


VIII. Прочтите первые четыре абзаца текста и дайте письменный ответ на следующие вопросы:

1. What are the reasons why exporting firms sell their goods through agents?

2. What are two types of agency agreements?


    IX. Пользуясь следующими клише, составьте аннотацию прочитанного текста.

  1. This text is about …

  2. The title of the text is …

  3. The text consists of three (four) parts.

  4. At the beginning the author describes …

  5. The main idea of the text is …

  6. The text provides useful information on …

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The company has issued the additional stock.

2. We look for a special list suitable for the position at the present moment.

3. They were discussing the possibility of the purchase of inventory from 5 till 6 p.m. yesterday.

4. My parents had settled everything connected with insurance before they retired on pension.

5. He had arrived to the conclusion to take a long-term loan when I met him yesterday.


II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.


1. A corporate charter, as a certificate of incorporation, is granted by a state officer.

2. The staff of the company is being enlarged by the board of directors.

3. The outflow of capital is formed by the purchase of inventory and supplies, payment of salaries.

4. A long-term loan is taken by their company from the Federal Bank.

5. All advantages and disadvantages of partnership have been considered by us.


III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол и его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The interest has to be paid out whether business is profitable or not.

2. The middlemen may set the new price.

3. We'll have to work out a new chemical composition for our products and carry out a number of tests.

4. At the end of the fiscal year everybody can check out the assets and liabilities, net worth and profit position of the company in the financial statements.

5. A company must deduct its costs, expenses, losses on bad debts, interest on borrowed capital and other items because it helps in its work.


IV. Определите функции глагола "to be" в предложениях, пере­ведите их на русский язык.

1. Not everyone is enthusiastic about the idea of electronic money.

2. Each share is represented by a stock certificate which is negotiable.

3. We are changing the organizational structure of our compa­ny.

4. If there is a non-payment, it is impossible to find who is guilty.

5. We hope to be in business for a long time.

6. Payment is to be made by a Letter of Credit.


V. Определите функции глагола "to have", переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. But the interest has to be paid whether business is profi­table or not.

2. They have borrowed much money and they have to pay a big interest.

3. The international corporation or global company has its origin.

4. I have some thoughts on this problem that’s why I’d like to see your boss.

5. He had a wish to make an appointment with the Marketing Director.

6. Don't disturb him, he is having talks with foreign busi­nessmen.


VI. Определите функции глагола "to do", переведите предложе­ния на русский язык.

1. Don't start your own business without consulting a lawyer.

2. If we do it right we'll sell more and become the leader in the market.

3. Does this company pay dividends on its stock?

4. Their business is doing very well, the value of their stock has been rising.

5. I do like to give orders but not to receive them.

6. He seldom goes abroad, but when he does, he usually takes his travelers' cheques.


VII. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Пояснение к тексту

management - (действие) управление, руководство, менеджмент

managerial - управленческий, административный

concept - понятие

to evaluate - оценивать, давать оценку

profitability - прибыльность, рентабельность

product life cycle - жизненный цикл товара

to decline - падать, сокращаться

mix - состав, ассортимент

due to - благодаря, в результате

sales support - стимулирование сбыт

to cut into - вклиниться gradual - постепенный


^ MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Management, by definition, is a function of planning, organizing, coordinating, directing and controlling. Any managerial system, at any managerial level, is characterized in terms of these general functions.

Management is revealed in a variety of specific activities. Marketing management refers to a broad concept covering organization of production and sales of products, which is based on consumer requirements research. All companies must look beyond their present situation and develop a long-term strategy to meet changing conditions in their industry. Marketing management, therefore, consists of evaluating market opportunities, selecting markets, developing market strategies, planning marketing tactics and controlling marketing results.

Strategic planning includes defining the company's long-term as well as specific objectives, such as sales volume, market share, profitability and innovation, and deciding on financial, material and other resources necessary to achieve those objectives.

In problems of market selection and product planning one of the key concepts is that of the Product Life Cycle. That products pass through various stages between life and death (Introduction-growth-maturity-decline) is hard to deny. Equally accepted is the understanding that a company should have a mix of products with representation in each of these stages. Companies can make far more effective marketing decisions if they take time to find out there each of their products stands in its life cycle.

However, the concept of the product life cycle seems frequently forgotten in marketing planning, which leads to wrong decision-making. This may well be seen in the following story.

A supplier of some light industrial equipment felt that the decline in the sales of his major product was due to the fact that it was not receiving the sales support it deserved. In order to give extra sales support to this problem case a special advertising campaign was run. This required cutting into marketing budgets of several promising products that were still in their "young" growth phase. In fact, the major product has long since passed the zenith of its potential sales, and no amount of additional sales support could have extended its growth.

This became quite clear in the end-of-year sales results which showed no improvement. The promising products, however, went into gradual sales decline.

In short, management has failed to consider each product's position in its life cycle.


VIII. Прочитайте первые четыре абзаца и дайте письменный ответ на следующие вопросы:

1. What is management by definition?

2. What is one of the key concepts in marketing?


    IX. Пользуясь следующими клише, составьте аннотацию прочитанного текста.

  1. This text is about …

  2. The title of the text is …

  3. The text consists of three (four) parts.

  4. At the beginning the author describes …

  5. The main idea of the text is …

  6. The text provides useful information on …

^ ПРИМЕРНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ ПОЛУЧЕНИЯ ЗАЧЕТА

(2-й семестр)

ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ ТЕСТ

Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить тест, необходимо усвоить следуйте разделы курса английского языка:

1. Имя существительное. Множественное число. Артикли и предлоги как показатели имени существительного, выражение падежных отношений в английском языке с помощью предлогов и окончания -s. Существительное в функции определения и его перевод на русский язык.

2. Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения имен прилагательных.

Конструкция типа the more . . . the less.

3. Числительные.

4. Местоимения: личные, притяжательные, вопросительные, указательные, неопределенные и отрицательные.

5. Форма настоящего (Present), прошедшего (Past) и будущего (Future) времени группы Indefinite действительного залога и изъявительного наклонения. Спряжение глаголов to be, to have в Present, Past и Future Indefinite. Повелительное наклонение и его отрицательная форма.

6. Простое распространенное предложение: прямой порядок слов повелительного и побудительного предложений в утвердительной и отрицательной формах; обратный порядок слов вопросительного предложения.

Оборот there is (are).

7. Основные случаи словообразования.


ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного (см. образец выполнения 1).

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. A partnership is an association of two or more persons to carry on a business for profit.

2. An executive makes a lot of important decisions: he sets objectives, coordinates work, delegates authority, makes hiring, firing, evaluating and just general leading.

3. When a business grows in size and becomes more complex, there is a need for specialists.

4. The secret partner - a person who takes part in management but who is not known to the public.

5. After obtaining the charter the stockholders, as owners,

hold a meeting to elect the Board of Directors, adopt bylaws and choose the company's officers.


II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным .

1. In corporation the individuals' shares of ownership are represented by stock certificates.

2. In companies the top officers are called administrators.

3. Organization structure is very important because it provides an efficient work system as well as a system of communication.

4. A sales manager may be in a line position between a vice-president of marketing and a salesman.

5. A worker in a staff position reports directly to a line worker but he neither gives nor receives orders for line workers.


III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие равные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1. The sole proprietorship is the most common in many western countries.

2. The new materials will certainly be more expensive.

3. In sole proprietorship the most important risk is that you have unlimited liability.

4. One of the advantages of the corporate form of ownership is that a corporation can offer higher salaries and thus attract talented managers and specialists.


IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. In some western countries, cities, states federal government and special agencies can establish governmental corporations.

2. Any retailer performs many necessary functions: provides a convenient location, helps to рromote the product, guarantees and services the merchandise he sells.

3. An Erection Supervision Appendix is an integral part of any contract for a complete plant.

4. John and Steve are thinking of incorporating and some businessmen are interested in investing with them.


V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык .


1. The book keeper will prepare the tax report.

2. This shop - assistant gets along well with all the customers.

3. Limited partnerships are a common form of ownership in real estate, oil prospecting, quarrying industries, etc.

4. The accounting department regularly prepared the income statement and balance sheet.

5. He worked as a Comptroller of the company for two years.


VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык текст.

Пояснение к тексту

wholesaling - оптовая торговля

to provide channels - обеспечивать системой сбыта

retailer - розничный торговец

wholesale unit - (зд.) контора по оптовой торговле

total sale - совокупная продажа merchant wholesaler - оптовый скупщик

to take title to the goods - приобретать товар как собственность

agent middleman - посредник между производителем и покупателем

to negotiate purchases or sales - вести переговоры по поводу

купли или продажи


WHOLESALING

Wholesaling is a part of the marketing system. It provides channels of distribution which help to bring goods to the market.

Generally indirect channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or through more complicated channels. A direct channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer.

Wholesaling is often a field of small business, but there is a growing chain movement in the western countries. About a quarter of wholesaling units account for one-third of total sales.

Two-third of the wholesaling middleman are merchant wholesalers who take title to the goods they deal in. There are also agent middlemen who negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don't take title to the goods they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. These agents don't earn salaries. They receive commissions. This is a percentage of the value of the goods they sell.

Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. For example the average supermarket stocks 5.000 items in groceries alone, a retail druggist can have more than 6.000 items. As a wholesaler handles a large assortment of items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem of both manufacturer and retailer. The store-keeper does not have to deal directly with thousands of different people. He usually has a well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.


VII. Прочитайте 1-й абзац текста и дайте письменный ответ на следующие вопросы:

1. What is the aim of the wholesaling?

2. How can you dеscribe a direct channel of distribution?


    VIII . Пользуясь следующими клише, составьте аннотацию прочитанного текста.

  1. This text is about …

  2. The title of the text is …

  3. The text consists of three (four) parts.

  4. At the beginning the author describes …

  5. The main idea of the text is …

  6. The text provides useful information on …


ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present Indefinite;

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. In partnerships each partner is responsible for all debts and is legally responsible for the whole business.

2. The vice-president usually sets objectives for the staff.

3. When hiring a new employee the employer uses different valuable sources, for example, employment agencies, consulting firms, placement offices and professional societies.

4. The top amount of customers' credit is based on the profits and earnings of a business.

5. The main idea of line structure is direct vertical relationships between the positions and tasks of each level, and the positions and tasks above and below each level.


II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным (см. образец выполнения 2).

1. Though the officers of the company supervise daily management, the stockholders always have final authority.

2. Historically, line structure is the oldest type of organization structure.

3. The activities of the staff departments include an accounting, personnel, credit and advertising.

4. Most businesses prepare regularly the two types of records: the income statement and balance sheet.

5. The Japanese make speed of product innovation (to sustain

competition) in the world car market.


III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.

1. It is evident that sole proprietorships do not do the greatest volume of business.

2. We'll get products of much higher quality which will be in great demand on the market and may be sold at higher prices.

3. Mr. Hooper's assistants collect answers, and then issue statistics stating, for example, that a song called "Open the Door, Richard", is 137 times more popular than Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.

4. There are also exchanges in several other cities of the United Kingdom but the London Stock Exchange is the most important.


IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. Any managerial system, at any managerial level, is characterized in terms of main general functions of management: planning, organizing, coordinating, directing and controlling.

2. There are some excellent and intelligent radio commentators on the air, who give their views on the world events.

3. The producers said no one should be able to dictate how much violence there should be on television.

4. A supplier of some light industrial equipment felt that decline in the sales of his major product was due to the fact that it was not receiving the sales support it deserved.


V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык .

1. A colleague will give me a piece of advice.

2. Barbara is my partner who knows how to attract customers.

3. Her boss is an executive of a firm that manufactures heavy machinery used in construction.

4. The board of directors checked out assets and liabilities and net worth.

6. Some governmental corporations issued stock certificate.


VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Пояснение к тексту

purchase - покупка, купля, приобретение

equity funding - акционерный (долевой) способ образования денежного фонда предприятия

debt funding - образование денежного фонда предприятия с помощью

займа

holders of the shares - держатели акций

stock certificate - сертификат акций

negotiable - оборотный

net assets - стоимость имущества за вычетом обязательств

bond - долговое обязательство, облигация

note - долговая расписка

interest - доля, фиксированный процент

supplies - ресурсы


^ CORPORATE FINANCE

Corporations need financing for the purchase of assets and the payment of expenses. The corporations can issue shares in exchange for money or property. Sometimes it is called as equity fun-ding. The holders of the shares form the ownership of the company. Each share is represented by a stock certificate, which is negotiable. It means that one can buy and sell it. The value of a share is determined by the net assets divided by the total number of shares outstanding. The value of the share also depends on the success of the company. The greater the success, the more value the shares have.

A corporation can also get capital by borrowing. It is called debt funding. If a corporation borrows money, they give notes or bonds. They are also negotiable. But the interest has to be paid out whether business is profitable or not.

When running the corporation, management must consider both the outflow and inflow of capital. The outflow is formed by the purchase of inventory and supplies, payment of salaries. The inflow is formed by the sale of goods and services. In the long run the inflow must be greater than the outflow. It results in a pro-fit. In addition, a company must deduct its costs, expenses, losses on bad debts, interest on borrowed capital and other items. It helps to determine if the financial management has been profitable. The amount of risk involved is also an important factor. It determines the fund raising and it shows if a particular corporation is a good investment.


VII. Прочитайте 1-й абзац и дайте письменный ответ на следующие вопросы:

1. Why do all corporations need financing?

2. What does equity funding mean?


    VIII. . Пользуясь следующими клише, составьте аннотацию прочитанного текста.

  1. This text is about …

  2. The title of the text is …

  3. The text consists of three (four) parts.

  4. At the beginning the author describes …

  5. The main idea of the text is …

  6. The text provides useful information on …



^ ПРИМЕРНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ ПОЛУЧЕНИЯ ЭКЗАМЕНА

(4-й семестр)


ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ ТЕСТ

Чтобы правильно выполнить тест, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка:

1. Причастие. Формы и функции причастия в предложении, способы перевода. Независимый причастный оборот.

2. Герундий. Формы и функции герундия в предложении. Способы перевода.

3. Инфинитив, формы и функции инфинитива в предложении.

4. Обороты, равнозначные придаточным предложениям: объектный инфинитивный оборот, субъектный инфинитивный оборот.

5.Сослагательное наклонение.

6.Типы условных предложений.

7 Согласование времен.

Используйте образцы выполнения упражнений.

Образец выполнения 1 (к упр. I)

  1. Taking into account your request, long-standing business relations we are ready to meet you halfway.

Taking - The Present Participle Active, функция - обстоятельство


^ Принимая во внимание Вашу просьбу, длительные деловые связи, мы готовы пойти Вам навс­тречу.

  1. They stopped their negotiation not having got the necessary­ documents.

Not having got - The Perfect Participle Active, функция -обстоятельство.

^ Они прервали переговоры, не получив необходимых документов.

Образец выполнения 2 (к упр. II)

  1. ^ Advertising materials being studied very carefully, we wo­uld like to establish business contacts with you. –независимый причастный оборот




Так как мы тщательно изучили рекламные материалы, мы хотели бы установить с вами деловые контакты.


  1. The prices for similar goods offered by other companies are much higher than your prices, your goods being in greater de­mand on the world market. –

независимый причастный оборот

^ Цены на аналогичные товары, предлагае­мые другими фирмами, значительно выше ваших цен, при этом ваши то­вары пользуются большим спросом на мировом рынке.


Образец выполнения 3 (к упр. III)

  1. Financing by shares is called equity funding.

Financing - The Indefinite Gerund Active, функция - подлежащее

^ Финансиро­вание с помощью продажи акций называемся акционерным (долевым) способом образования денежного фонда предприятия.

  1. Yesterday we suggested increasing our order to one hundred and twenty-five trucks.

Increasing - The Indefinite Gerund Active, функция - часть глагольного сказуемого.


^ Вчера мы предложили увеличить свой заказ до 125 машин.

Образец выполнения 4 (к упр. IV)

  1. We thank you for your cooperation and businesslike appro­ach, for your ability to find a compromise and make a decision in complicated situation. –

То find - The Indefinite Infinitive Active, функция - опреде­ление.

^ Мы благодарим вас за сотрудничество и де­ловой подход, за ваше умение находить компромисс и принимать решение в сложных ситуациях.


  1. Economic Laws were not made to be broken. Laws were not made to stay within. –

^ То be broken - The Indefinite Infinitive Passive, функция -обстоятельство цели.

Экономические законы были созданы не для того, чтобы их нарушать, а для того, чтобы им подчиняться.


Образец выполнения 5 (к упр. V)

  1. Do you want us to offer you GIF or FOB prices? –

объектный инфинитивный оборот

^ Вы хоти­те, чтобы мы назначили цену СИФ ими ФОБ?

  1. The discount is known to be given if you increase your or­der. -

субъектный инфинитивный оборот

^ Известно, что скидка предоставляется в случае увеличения заказа.



Образец выполнения 6 (к упр.VI)

  1. If your offer had been received last week, we would have accepted it.

Это III тип условного предложения.

^ Если бы ваше предложение было бы получено на прош­лой неделе, мы бы его приняли.

  1. If you could extend the guarantee period, we would place an order with you.

Это II тип условного предложения.

^ Если бы вы смогли продлить гарантийный период, мы бы смогли разместить у вас заказ.

Образец выполнения 7 (к упр.VII)

1. Не says that if they agree to our price the transaction will not be profitable for them.

^ Он говорит, что если они согласятся на нашу цену, сделка для них будет нерентабельной.

2. Не explained that they were going to place a big order and, because of it, hope to get a good discount.

^ Он объяснил, что они собираются разместить большой заказ и поэтому надеются по­лучить хорошую скидку.


ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения. Определите форму и функцию причастия, подчеркните эти формы.

1. In Kursk the general director of a motor enterprise unlaw­fully laid his hand on the controlling package of shares.

2. He simply did not notify other shareholders about decisi­ons being taken.

3. Having set targets arid standards, managers have to measure the work of the organization and of its staff in relation to those targets.

4. Having been elected the Board of Directors fixed the date of annual meeting.

5. Being issued federal loan bonds appeared on the stock mar­ket last week.

6. With 8-10 percent of the population having incomes below the subsistence minimum, the dynamics of economic growth decreases and the periods of stagnation and crisis are prolonged.


II. Определите, в каких из следующих предложений имеется неза­висимый причастный оборот, переведите предложения, оборот подчерк­ните.

1. At the same time, the documents, determining the mechanism of relations between the state and banks, are acquiring a more concrete character.

2. The contract permitting, we shall reduce the delivery pe­riod to six months.

3. The price having gone up lately, we request you to give us a 5 per cent discount off the price.

4. Russia fully felt the results of the growing pressure on hard currency markets after the collapse of the rouble on "Black Tuesday".

5. Something new is adopted every year in foreign legislati­on, including laws aimed at the struggle against corruption and money laundering.

6. There are a lot of draft contracts in our firm, only some of them having been signed.


III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения. Определите форму и функцию герундия, подчеркните герундий.

1. After having settled the price problem, they passed on to the delivery dates.

2. Making careful decisions is the basis of good management.

3. Before going into business one must have some experience in business management.

4. I don't mind working hard for the prosperity of my firm.

5. The aim of our meeting is electing of a new Board of Di­rectors.

6. We need to find a way of expanding the business without losing control or borrowing large amounts of money.


IV. Определите в следующих предложениях формы и функции инфи­нитива, переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. This is the contract to be discussed at the next annual meeting of shareholders.

2. We are very pleased to have done good business with Cana­dian firms.

3. Regular payments are to be paid in the form of money.

4. To sign the contract we must examine all the documents ve­ry carefully.

5. To increase the authorized capital was the decision of the shareholders of this joint-stock company.

6. The creation of a new depository clearing system is based on the need to improve the securities market.


V. Подчеркните в следующих предложениях субъектный и объек­тный инфинитивный обороты, переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Experts consider 10 per cent to be the threshold amount of unemployment, taking into account the actual situation in Russia.

2. This year, labour resources are expected to be 83-83.5 million people.

3. The inflation rate is reported to progress at an average of 1-3 per cent per month.

4. We know the nominal amounts of incomes, expenses, invest­ments, production volume and others to depend on the real economic situation.

5. The experience of other countries proves a high pace of development to be impossible without heavy investment.

6. The Russian economy is supposed by the project's creators to be socially and market oriented.


VI. Определите тип условного предложения, переведите предло­жения на русский язык, глагол-сказуемое подчеркните.

1. We shall open a letter of credit as soon as we receive a notification that the goods are ready for shipment.

2. We would not have signed the contract, if we had not been satisfied with their terms of payment.

3. If we bought more equipment, we would produce more goods. If we produced more goods, we would get more profits.

4. We would have sold 3.000 cars, if we hadn't had a strike.

5. If our General Manager agree we'll resume the discussion.

6. David Fox will give you a final reply after they receive your detailed price - list.


VII. Переведите предложения правильно, обращая внимание на согласование времен.

1. Mr. Graham asks if they have the person who deals with or­ders that have gone wrong.

2. Mr. Ingersoll asked if the company could put forward deli­very to next month.

3. He answered that it would take him some time to find the address of the woman who had got that import/export office in Ma­nila.

4. Before we got down to business I asked Mr. Thompson if his flight had been good and pleasant.

5. He explained that he was not quite ready to place an order and wanted to check on the prices.

6. He recommended not to wait too long as the demand was likely to be quite heavy the following month.


ВАРИАНТ 2

1. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения. Определите форму и функцию причастия, подчеркните эти формы.

1. Having consulted his partners, he decided to hire a good accountant to do the taxes.

2. Managers spend a great deal of time communicating, coordi­nating and making decisions affecting the daily operation of their organization.

3. The swindlers introducing themselves as staff members of a Russian-Irish joint venture, attracted citizens' money for the construction of comfortable and inexpensive housing.

4. Having sensed the law-enforcers' interest in the firm's activities, the swindlers flied with all the money.

6. The banks, being engaged in long-term investments are acti­vely joining the Russian marketing association through market-ori­ented programs.

7. Having been asked a lot of questions, he decided to think the situation over again.


II. Определите, в каких из следующих предложений имеется независимый причастный оборот, переведите предложения, оборот подчерк­ните.

1. All the arrangements being made, we can get down to busi­ness right away.

2. Finally, Peter Drucker says in his book that managers deve­lop people, including themselves.

3. Your prices are higher than those on the world market, the design of your equipment being not so modern.

4. All documents having been got, they could open the Letter of Credit with our central bank.

5. According to the Main Department for Fighting Economic Crimes, in 1994 about 700 legal structures were set up in Russia to launder criminal incomes, three to four trillion roubles being put into circulation using false letters of advice.

6. Considering the lack of experience with the new securiti­es, the activity of banks at the first auction may be regarded as more than high.


III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения. Определите форму и функцию герундия, подчеркните герундий.

1. If anyone thinks business is easy, let him try making so­mething, selling it and collecting money.

2. After having discussed terms of payment, they could start their talks on prices.

3. Retailing is selling goods and services to the consumer.

4. The government can't close your business unless you break the law, but the customers can close your business simply by staуing away.

5. In keeping with tradition, the Ministry of Economy has prepared two versions for the development of the economic situati­on in the country.

6. The Buyers shall obtain the import license within six months of the date of signing the contract.


IV. Определите в следующих предложениях формы и функции инфи­нитива, переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. Prospective investors are to be chosen through competition.

2. The problem to be solved concerns the terms of payments and the delivery dates.

3. Commercial banks continue to actively buy hard currency, which affects the dollar exchange rate.

4. The money received by the guarantee fund is used to buy highly-liquid securities.

6. To create an effective payment system in the money market was the difficult task in Russia.

7. To change the selling price you are to place a big order.


V. Подчеркните в следующих предложениях субъектный и объек­тный инфинитивные обороты, переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. One would like to hope that the members of the upper house will understand the benefits that this document is supposed to give the country.

2. Nobody wants the bankers to oppose the course of the re­forms.

3. A time span of 30 years is needed to reach a middle social level.

4. The forgery of credit cards and operations with them are considered in the west to be no less a problem than false cash.

5. The experts believe two trillion dollars to be required within the next five years to solve the most urgent problems.

6. Mr. West left the document stating how he wished his esta­te to be divided.


VI. Определите тип условного предложения, переведите предло­жения на русский язык, глагол-сказуемое подчеркните.

1. However, if the government does not return the credits, the banks will not be able to take possession of the security.

2. They wouldn't lose any customers if they worked hard.

3. If they had been careful, they would have left behind their competitors.

4. We would send you our contract, if you agreed la these terms and conditions.

5. If we agrее to your price the transaction will not be pro­fitable for us.

6. After we settled some financial problems, we could specify our terms of payment, and delivery.


VII. Переведите предложения правильно, обращая внимание на сог­ласование времен.

1. Mr. Dawson wondered if they had studied their advertising material carefully.

2. She explained that the President was not available at the moment. He was having talks with Smith and Company. They were ne­gotiating a new contract.

3. Mr. Hampton adds that before they move on to the Number One problem that is the price - they'll have to discuss the pay­ment terms.

4. He asked if different contracts would have different pay­ment terms depending on the kind of goods.

5. He promised not to open a letter of credit before they re­ceived a notification that the goods were ready for shipment.

6. He said that the price would be based on West-European market prices.


^ ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЙ ТЕСТ


ВАРИАНТ 1

I.Выучите следующие слова и выражения :

trade: the activity of buying, selling, or exchanging goods or services between people, firms, or countries; a medium of exchange ( = commerce).

hire: if you hire someone, you pay them to do a particular job for you ( ↑ contract).

purchase: to buy sth; the action or process of buying sth; a thing bought.

merchant = trader: a person who buys or sells goods in large quantities,

especially one who imports and exports them.

labour: very hard work, often work that does not need a lot of skill.

value: the worth of sth in terms of money or other goods for which it can be exchanged; the worth of sth compared with the price paid for it.

earn: to get money by working, to get money as profit or interest on a loan or an investment.

perishable: (esp. of food) likely to decay or go bad quickly: perishable goods / commodity.

preserve: to keep sth in its original state or in good condition; to prevent sth., esp. food from decaying by treating it in a particular way.

a down payment = deposit: a sum of money, which is part of the total cost of something and which is paid immediately when you buy the thing.

goods: (pl) things for sale, merchandise; movable property.

article: (зд.) a particular object or item.

supply: the act of providing someone with it; the amount of a commodity that can be produced and made available for people to buy.

shortage: a situation where there is not enough of sth or where the supply of sth begins to decrease.


II. Найдите слово, которое не соответствует остальным словам по смыслу:

a) carry bear bring take

b) reach achieve succeed arrive

c) perish preserve collapse rot

d) value estimate assess neglect

e) difficulty problem help trouble


III. Найдите 5 пар слов, которые имеют одинаковое значение:

merchant contract

goods keep, mountain

preserve trader

hire commerce

trade merchandise


IV. Запишите и прочитайте следующие числа и выражения. Ниже приведены примеры :

Model: 17 May the seventeenth of May

1981 nineteen eighty-one

$2.1 m two point one million dollars

344 three hundred and forty-four

1/2 a (one) half

1/3 a (one) third

1/4 a (one) quarter

3/5 three fifth

5.30 five thirty a.m., five thirty p.m., half past five in morning, half past five in the afternoon, seventeen thirty

6.45 (o’clock) 759,000 $ 1 bln 4/5

80 % 300,500 673 0.33

10 January, 2003 £329 0.9 102.5


V. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопрос.

What function does money fulfill?

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